19Oct2021
  • Phoenix Business Centre, Unit 8, Phoenix Road, Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, LA14 2UA
  • info@fifthsense.org.uk
  • en English
SMELL & TASTE

Glossary

Please find below a glossary of terms and phrases to do with Smell & Taste that you may come accross on our website.

Smell Disorders

Anosmia

No sense of smell

Hyposmia

A reduced sense of smell

Parosmia

A distortion of the sense of smell in the presence of a stimulus

Dysosmia

A non-specific term referring to a disturbance in the sense of smell

Congenital Anosmia

Someone born without a sense of smell.

Idiopathic Anosmia

This refers to patients in whom after extensive testing no cause for the loss of sense of smell is found.

Functional anosmia

Person able to detect occasional odours but having no practical day-to-day sense of smell

Hyperosmia

An enhanced sense of smell

Cacosmia

An unpleasant form of parosmia

Phantosmia

Sensation of a smell in the absence of a stimulus (‘Phantom’ smells)

Normosmia

An ordinary sense of smell.
Taste Disorders​

Ageusia

The inability to taste.

Dysgeusia

An altered sense of taste.
Causations

Samter’s Triad / Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease (AERD)

A chronic medical condition consisting of asthma, sinus disease with recurring nasal polyps, and aspirin sensitivity.

Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS)

With or without Polyps. CRS occurs when the lining of the sinuses become swollen.

Nasal polyps

Nasal polyps are painless soft growths inside your nose. They're not usually serious, but they can keep growing and block your nose if not treated.

Post-viral olfactory loss

Smell loss caused by a viral infection.

Kallmann Syndrome

A condition characterized by delayed or absent puberty and an impaired sense of smell.

Post-traumatic olfactory loss

Name Description Samter’s Triad / Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease (AERD) A chronic medical condition consisting of asthma, sinus disease with recurring nasal polyps, and aspirin sensitivity. Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) With or without Polyps. CRS occurs when the lining of the sinuses become swollen. Nasal polyps Nasal polyps are painless soft growths inside your nose. They're not usually serious, but they can keep growing and block your nose if not treated. Post-viral olfactory loss Smell loss caused by a viral infection. Kallmann Syndrome A condition characterized by delayed or absent puberty and an impaired sense of smell. Post-traumatic olfactory loss A head injury that has resulted in the loss of the sense of smell.
The Human Body

Olfaction

The sense of smell.

Olfactory nerve

The nerve – consisting of a bundle of many sensory fibres – that transmits impulses from the olfactory receptor cells to the brain.

Olfactory Neurones or Receptor Cells

These are cells embedded in a layer of mucous membrane at the top of the nasal cavity that generate an impulse on detection of an odour molecule from whatever substance we are smelling.  Humans have around 6 million receptor cells in each nostril.

Umami 

The fifth basic taste.  Umami is a Japanese word which means ‘pleasant savoury taste’, and is the taste of glutamic acid, more commonly known as glutamate.

Orthonasal olfaction

The odours we detect externally.

Retronasal olfaction

The odours we detect internally from the back of our nose from our mouth, when chewing food. This is how we appreciate the flavour of food when it is in our mouth and why many people suffering from a smell disorder believe that there is something wrong with their sense of taste.

Limbic System

The part of the brain that regulates smell /memory and emotions.

Trigeminal nerve

The facial nerve responsible for motor functions and sensations in the face.

Gustation

Name Description Olfaction The sense of smell. Olfactory nerve The nerve – consisting of a bundle of many sensory fibres – that transmits impulses from the olfactory receptor cells to the brain. Olfactory Neurones or Receptor Cells These are cells embedded in a layer of mucous membrane at the top of the nasal cavity that generate an impulse on detection of an odour molecule from whatever substance we are smelling.  Humans have around 6 million receptor cells in each nostril. Umami  The fifth basic taste.  Umami is a Japanese word which means ‘pleasant savoury taste’, and is the taste of glutamic acid, more commonly known as glutamate. Orthonasal olfaction The odours we detect externally. Retronasal olfaction The odours we detect internally from the back of our nose from our mouth, when chewing food. This is how we appreciate the flavour of food when it is in our mouth and why many people suffering from a smell disorder believe that there is something wrong with their sense of taste. Limbic System The part of the brain that regulates smell /memory and emotions. Trigeminal nerve The facial nerve responsible for motor functions and sensations in the face. Gustation The sensory system responsible for the sense of taste. Olfactory Bulb The olfactory bulb is a nervous structure related to the sense of smell. It is an extension of the nervous tissue of the brain that extends to the roof of the nasal cavity. Flavour The experience of retronasal olfaction. Mouth Smell The internal smell in our mouth that distinguishes flavour.

Olfactory Bulb

The olfactory bulb is a nervous structure related to the sense of smell. It is an extension of the nervous tissue of the brain that extends to the roof of the nasal cavity.

Flavour

The experience of retronasal olfaction.

Mouth Smell

The internal smell in our mouth that distinguishes flavour.
The Human Body

Sniffin’ Sticks

 Pen-like devices that dispense odours, used in the clinical evaluation of olfactory function

ENT

Ear, nose and throat.

Smell training

A technique to help train the nose.

Sinus Rinsing

The process of passing a water-based solution through the nose to clear debris and blockages.

SmellAbility©

An assortment of tools to support people affected by a smell disorder.

Rhinology

The branch of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the nose.

#LetsTalkSmellAndTaste

Events created by Fifth Sense to support people affected by smell and taste disorders.

MRI Scan

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of scan that uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the inside of the body.

CAT Scan

A computerised tomography (CT) scan uses X-rays and a computer to create detailed images of the inside of the body.

Neti Pot

A small container with a long spout used to rinse the nasal cavities.
Chemicals

Mercaptan

A chemical added to natural gas to give it an odour.